Hermann Rorschach (1884-1922) was a Swiss psychiatrist born in Zurich, the son of an art teacher. During his childhood, Rorschach was said to be fascinated by drawings. He was a 1912 graduate from the University of Zurich, where he obtained a medical degree. He became a follower of Freudian theories, and in 1919 was elected president of the Swiss Psychoanalytic Society.
Rorschach devised a diagnostic test intended to measure aspects of
personality, primarily the unconscious. It consisted of ten ink blots in complex shapes. The way in which the subject described these pictures would reveal his or her unconscious attitudes. Some psychologists have discounted the validity of the Rorschach test, arguing that the assumption that the subject is projecting his inner fears and other emotional problems is too speculative.